President Eisenhower pledged his continued support, and a parade was held in Diệm's honor in New York City.
Former Secretary of Defense Robert Mc Namara wrote in Argument Without End (1999) that the new American patrons of the Republic of Vietnam (ROV) were almost completely ignorant of Vietnamese culture.They knew little of the language or long history of the country.This followed an American psychological warfare campaign, designed by Edward Lansdale for the CIA, which exaggerated anti-Catholic sentiment among the Viet Minh and which falsely claimed the US was about to drop atomic bombs on Hanoi.Diệm staffed his government's key posts mostly with northern and central Catholics. Laotian Civil War dead: 20,000–62,000* Non-Indochinese military dead (sum): 65,425 Total dead (sum): 1,291,425–4,211,451 For more information see Vietnam War casualties and Aircraft losses of the Vietnam War * indicates approximations to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It is also called Chiến tranh Việt Nam (The Vietnam War).
combat operations in Ia Drang, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tet Offensive, two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, and burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 In Vietnamese, the war is generally known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ (Resistance War Against America), but less formally as 'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ' (The American War').
Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January 1973, the fighting continued. The war changed the dynamics between the Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations.
ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves. and the Western world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a larger counterculture.
With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Viet Minh delegate Phạm Văn Đồng, The United States said, "With respect to the statement made by the representative of the State of Vietnam, the United States reiterates its traditional position that peoples are entitled to determine their own future and that it will not join in any arrangement which would hinder this". The campaign also focused on the Bình Xuyên organized crime group which was allied with members of the communist party secret police and had some military elements.
As broad-based opposition to his harsh tactics mounted, Diệm increasingly sought to blame the communists. Senator, said in a speech to the American Friends of Vietnam: "Burma, Thailand, India, Japan, the Philippines and obviously Laos and Cambodia are among those whose security would be threatened if the Red Tide of Communism overflowed into Vietnam." A devout Roman Catholic, Diệm was fervently anti-communist, nationalist, and socially conservative.
The south, meanwhile, constituted the State of Vietnam, with Bảo Đại as Emperor and Ngô Đình Diệm (appointed in July 1954) as his prime minister. Eisenhower wrote in 1954, "I have never talked or corresponded with a person knowledgeable in Indochinese affairs who did not agree that had elections been held as of the time of the fighting, possibly eighty percent of the population would have voted for the Communist Ho Chi Minh as their leader rather than Chief of State Bảo Đại.